## Video

### Video No. 1 - Change arrangement of students' desks from rows to a circle

**Change arrangement of students' desks from rows to a circle**

The teacher gives the prompt to change the students’ desk arrangement from rows to a circle, because of his intention to conduct a plenary session. It can be with or without desks, depending on the task.

A change of seating arrangement offers new methodological opportunities. These allow new forms of interaction between teachers and students. Moreover, a circle arrangement is ideally suited to students discussing issues amongst themselves, because they can see each other better than when sitting in rows.

Such a modification of seating arrangements has to be trained with the students and may initially take some time to do. With increasing practice, a class will be able to do it in less than 1 minute.

### Video No. 2 - Change arrangement of students‘ desks from a circle to pairs

**Change arrangement of students‘ desks from a circle to pairs**

The students’ circular desk arrangement can be easily transformed so that they can sit in pairs. Students’ discussions can become more focused and intense when in pairs in order for them to achieve better results. Note: the teacher gives her/ his task instructions before the change of seats so the students start their work (here: their discussion in pairs) immediately with no further interruptions made by the teacher.

Such a modification of seating arrangements may initially take some time to do. With increasing practice, a class will be able to do it in less than half a minute. It is also easy to move the seats back to form a circle again for a subsequent plenary session (see sequence 1).

### Video No. 2a - Change arrangement of students‘ desks from a circle to groups of four

**Change arrangement of students‘ desks from a circle to groups of four**

The students’ circular desk arrangement can be easily transformed so that they can work in groups of four. Students working on a task in groups (here: students’ discussion in groups of 4) need to change their seating arrangement to achieve better results.

Such a modification of seating arrangement takes time to rehearse and with increasing practice, a class will be able to do it in less than half a minute (see sequence 11).

### Video No. 3 - Change arrangement of students‘ desks from rows to pairs using two desks

**Change arrangement of students‘ desks from rows to pairs using two desks**

The students’ desk arrangement of rows can be easily transformed so that they can work in pairs using two desks. It only requires a rotation of one of the two desks.

The teacher starts with a short description of the task, then describes the new arrangement of the desks and gives a prompt for the students to start working on the task immediately after the change of seats.

### Video No. 3a - Change arrangement of students‘ desks from rows to pairs using 1 desk

**Change arrangement of students‘ desks from rows to pairs using 1 desk**

The students’ desk arrangement of rows can be easily transformed so that they work in pairs using just one desk for two students. This requires a simple rotation of one chair.

The teacher starts with a short description of the task, describes the new order of desks and gives the prompt to let the students start working on the task immediately after the change of seats.

### Video No. 4 - Change arrangement of students‘ desks from rows to groups of four

**Change arrangement of students‘ desks from rows to groups of four**

This sequence shows a transformation of the students’ desks from rows to an arrangement in groups of four, which has to be trained as a quick action during a lesson.

The teacher ensures that the students start their task immediately after changing the seat order (see sequence 11).

### Video No. 13 - Teacher gives thinking time when asking a question

**Teacher gives thinking time when asking a question**

A plenary session takes place in a class. * The teacher asks several questions; students think about them and raise their hands when they are ready to answer. This sequence stresses that it is of great importance for the chairing teacher to give enough time and to wait up to 7 (!) seconds before she/he prompts a student to answer.

There are many students who need time to think about a question before they are able to answer. Some teachers may feel uncomfortable with a phase of silence during which students are forced to think. But to achieve intensive thinking time and patience is of absolute necessity.

* In addition, this sequence shows that plenary sessions may also take place in different kinds of desk arrangements (e.g. in groups of four).

### Video No. 5 - Opening a lesson with a short explanation of the task

**Opening a lesson with a short explanation of the task**

A teacher introduces a task as clearly and as concisely as possible. She knows that the students have the description of the task in their booklets, so there is no need to give a description in great detail. Later on, the teacher is ready if students ask for help in the event of individual difficulties. It may occur that students misunderstand or sometimes even exceed the task. Wherever possible, the teacher does not intervene in (does not disturb) the students’ work any further and gives them time to think. By checking and comparing the results amongst themselves and/or through feedback given by the teacher after they have finished, the students should be able to judge their results according to the task criteria.

### Video No. 6 - Opening a lesson without explaining the task

**Opening a lesson without explaining the task**

In this clip, a teacher starts her/his lesson with a few sentences about the context of the subject without explaining the task in detail. She/he prompts the students to read the task silently and lets them start working immediately afterwards. It is important that the students get used to reading and trying to understand the tasks themselves wherever possible.

The teacher is ready to help in the event of individual students’ difficulties in understanding the task. Often there is no need for a plenary round to deal with general questions, so she/he must not disturb the students during this work process any more than necessary.

### Video No. 7 - Teacher‘s instruction to draw a competence spider diagram

**Teacher‘s instruction to draw a competence spider diagram**

The teacher explains to the students as concisely as possible how to construct a competence spider diagram. She/he works with a flip chart or on the board to visualise and to give a model so that the students are able to start their work afterwards. It is highly recommended that the structure of the spider diagram be prepared in advance so as not to loose time during the explanation.

### Video No. 8 - Drawing a mind map (about personal competences)

**Drawing a mind map (about personal competences)**

If there is a rather complex task, it may be helpful to explain it by modelling. In this clip, a teacher draws a mind map about her/his personal competences step by step.

Note: to introduce the mind map about competences it is not necessary that the teacher expose herself/himself and her/his personal issues (see toolbox).

### Video No. 9 - Teacher’s moderation of a plenary session (about fields of interest)

**Teacher’s moderation of a plenary session (about fields of interest)**

This sequence shows a teacher’s moderation of a plenary session. Plenary sessions are ideal for sharing individual opinions and statements. It is highly recommended that students sit in a (semi-) circle (e.g. in front of a board or flip chart) so they can see each other. The teacher chairs the plenary discussion. She/He demonstrates a crucial teaching competence by letting the students talk in the main.

She/He uses gestures to lead the discussion and talks as little as possible. She/He mostly indicates nonverbally when she/he wants someone to speak. The teacher mainly doesn’t comment, either positively or negatively, on students’ statements.

This session is not as is often seen, where the teacher asks a question and already knows the answer she/he wants to hear (eliciting). Rather: the teacher asks - students answer – the teacher asks again – students answer - etc.

Plenary talking sessions are pointless when conclusions are already known and the content is predetermined.

### Video No. 10 - Teacher‘s oral feedback on the final reflection on the unit in a plenary session

**Teacher‘s oral feedback on the final reflection on the unit in a plenary session**

In preparation for this plenary session, students finish their final reflection in their booklets and write their personal statements about what they have learnt. The teacher opens the plenary session so that the students’ opinions, experiences and latest findings can be shared. She/he chairs the session by saying as little as possible and does not make comments. It is highly recommended for the teacher to invite the students to respond to the other students’ statements too.

At the end of the session, the teacher summarises and gives overall feedback. Her/his comments in this situation need to be positive and relate to the content of students’ statements.

She/he uses positive key-sentences like:,

- “It seems to me very interesting…”

- “I become aware of...”

- “You are more self-confident…”

- “You know yourself better…”

- “I’m sure that you are able to…”

- “You should be proud of becoming aware about…”

### Video No. 11 - Students‘ discussion in groups of four

**Students‘ discussion in groups of four**

A class sits in groups of four students. At the front of the class, the teacher gives a short explanation of the task and the subject that has to be discussed. Students start to talk and different group discussions take place simultaneously. The teacher cannot chair this discussion. Students make statements, ask each other, answer and clarify. The teacher goes to different groups to listen attentively without saying anything. She/he shows her/his interest nonverbally without intervening.

There is a certain acceptable level of noise that is part of the process. This has to be judged as desirable and constructive during this phase. However, it might be necessary to advise the students to talk as quietly as possible, so that they can understand each other.

### Video No. 12 - Mock interview with two students

**Mock interview with two students**

Interviews can be rehearsed simultaneously in pairs with an entire class. Students sit in pairs at a table and rehearse interview techniques.

The interviewer has got her interview guidelines in front of her but she keeps eye contact during the conversation (see toolbox: quality criteria for interviews). She/He does not take minutes during the interview so she/he is able to concentrate on her/his partner.

The teacher listens to different interviews without intervening or making comments. Finally, she/ he gives feedback according to the criteria for successful interviews.

Alternative: the class works in groups of three students. Two of them rehearse the interview; the third person listens to them, observes and gives feedback afterwards using the criteria for successful interviews. In this way, every pair receives feedback.

### Video No. 14 - Students present a poster - the teacher gives feedback

**Students present a poster - the teacher gives feedback**

Sequences 14 and 14a focus on two students’ presentation of a poster (see toolbox) to a class.

The teacher takes a seat in the circle amongst the other students. After the presentation, she/he gives the floor to the students so that they can ask their questions. Finally (after 3:38 min), she/he gives feedback, stressing the positive and successful elements of the presentation.

### Video No. 14a - Students present a poster - the class gives feedback

**Students present a poster - the class gives feedback**

In this sequence we see a presentation given by two students about their interview with a professional. After some time to ask questions, the students give feedback (after 3:16 min). This sequence shows that the students are highly capable of giving feedback following the criteria for a successful interview (see toolbox).

To achieve a good feedback culture some specific training is required. This should be an intrinsic part of many of the JOBS tasks and needs to be developed (which requires patience).

A further possibility is the combination of both student and teacher feedback.

### Video No. 15 - Statements made by the vice-principal and the teachers of the Transilvania Technical College, Brasov about their experience with JOBS

**Statements made by the vice-principal and the teachers of the Transilvania Technical College, Brasov about their experience with JOBS**

The vice-principal and two teachers (10th grade) talk about their personal experience of teaching JOBS lessons and their perceptions concerning the students’ achievements. They also give feedback on different aspects of the program.

- Daniela Felegean (vice-principal)
- Anca Urduzan (teacher)
- Mihaela Chereches (teacher)

### Video No. 16 - Statements made by the principal and the teachers of School No 25 Brasov, about their experiences with JOBS

**Statements made by the principal and the teachers of School No 25 Brasov, about their experiences with JOBS**

The principal and three (8th grade) teachers talk about their personal experience of teaching JOBS lessons and their perceptions concerning the students’ achievements. They also give feedback on different aspects of the program.

- Rodica Gheorghișor (principal)
- Mara Trofin (teacher)
- Roxana Ionița (teacher)
- Luminița Constantinescu (teacher)